Azure: Installing GNOME desktop and xRDP to access an Ubuntu 17.10 Server

Microsoft are continually working with different Linux communities to add evermore distributions to the Azure Marketplace. Running Linux machines in the cloud brings with it a number of benefits such as additional stability, security and affordability over that of its Windows counterpart. With Linux now running on two out of every five server instances on Azure, interaction with Linux based systems is becoming an ever increasing occurrence for system administrators.

SSH is the default method when connecting to an Ubuntu server deployed from the Azure Marketplace. For seasoned Linux admin this is fine but for anyone new to the operating system or looking for a quick method of troubleshooting, this style of administration can initially seem daunting or time consuming.

This article shows the steps involved in installing the GNOME desktop and xRDP package on an Ubuntu virtual machine running in Azure. This makes available a more familiar and user friendly remote desktop style connection.


The following assumptions have been made:

    • Ubuntu Server version 17.10 has been deployed from the Azure Marketplace
    • GNOME will be the chosen desktop interface
    • SSH access is available
    • PuTTY will be used as the SSH client
    • Azure Portal access is available.

Installing Gnome Desktop

Although Ubuntu 17.10 “Artful Aardvark” has dropped the Unity 7 desktop, instead switching to GNOME Shell, the Azure Marketplace image is deployed without the desktop package installed. It is worth noting that it’s possible to install xRDP without installing a desktop first, however, the user experience would be similar to that of the terminal experience offered when connecting by an SSH client.

Installing GNOME desktop over a terminal session might sound difficult, although in reality it’s actually a relatively straightforward task. The first step of the process is to remotely connect to the server using an SSH client such as PuTTY and then install the applications from the Official Ubuntu Repository.

Open up PuTTY and using the IP address of the server which can be found on the Overview blade in Azure, configure and establish an SSH connection.

Once the SSH session has been established, go ahead and login to the server.

Before we look to install the desktop, let’s go ahead and update the package list to make sure we have information on the newest versions of the packages and their dependencies. To accomplish this, we run the following command.

sudo apt-get update

We can now begin the desktop install. This is again done by issuing a fairly simple apt-get command from within the terminal session.

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-gnome-desktop

Installing xRDP

Now the desktop has been installed, it’s time to install xRDP. This is an open source remote desktop protocol (RDP) server, which allows you to RDP to your Linux server from a Windows machine. It is capable of accepting connections from rdesktop, freerdp, and remote desktop clients.

To install the package, run the following command.

sudo apt-get install -y xrdp

Configuring  Console Access

Console access is restricted to root by default which essentially means that without making any further changes, connections by anyone else will be dropped. This is obviously not the required user experience, therefore access to the console will need to be configured for all users.

To change access from root only to all users we simply edit the file /etc/X11/Xwrapper.config

This can be done by using an editor such as nano to manually change the line allowed_users=console to allowed_users=anybody.

Alternatively, it can also be updated by running the following command to make the changes.

sudo sed -i 's/allowed_users=console/allowed_users=anybody/' /etc/X11/Xwrapper.config

Adding a Network Security Group rule for RDP traffic

This article is based on an Ubuntu server that has been deployed from the Marketplace. As such, the machine will have been deployed with an NSG that has been configured to manage inbound and outbound traffic. By default, this will only allow port 22 inbound for SSH communication, not 3389 which is required for an RDP connection.

From within the portal, select the servers networking settings before then clicking on “Add inbound port rule

At this point you will be presented with a new blade in which the following settings need to be configured.

  • Service
  • Priority
  • Name
  • Description

As with most things in Azure, it is worth noting that this could also be done through PowerShell or Azure CLI.

Connecting via RDP

Now it’s time to check if the server is configured correctly and allowing RDP connections.

If your connecting from a Windows machine, go ahead and start up the Remote Desktop Connection client. Enter the public IP address of the Ubuntu Server and click on connect.

At this point the xRDP login screen should appear. Go ahead and provide user credentials before selecting OK.

The first time you remotely login to the Ubuntu desktop, you will be presented with the following Authentication Required popup.

Clicking the cancel button a number of times will close the message and allow access to the desktop, although it will return on the next login. To subdue the message permanently, changes to the polkit configuration will need to be made.

To make the required changes, use the following command to create a file called 02-allow-colord.conf in the following location /etc/polkit-1/localauthority.conf.d/ remembering to use admin privileges.

sudo nano /etc/polkit-1/localauthority.conf.d/02-allow-colord.conf

Once nano has created and opened the file for editing, paste the following text into the file, before exiting and saving.

polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
if (( == "org.freedesktop.color-manager.create-device" || == "org.freedesktop.color-manager.create-profile" || == "org.freedesktop.color-manager.delete-device" || == "org.freedesktop.color-manager.delete-profile" || == "org.freedesktop.color-manager.modify-device" || == "org.freedesktop.color-manager.modify-profile") &&
subject.isInGroup("{group}")) {
return polkit.Result.YES;

If everything has gone to plan, the next time you login, no authentication message should be displayed.

Missing Gnome Desktop Dock

The other thing that you may notice when connecting remotely, is that the Ubuntu Dock is not visible. Having searched around the internet for a fix for this, the best solution I came across, was actually to install the Gnome Tweak tool which in turn then made it possible to enable both the Ubuntu appindicators and Ubuntu dock extensions. For some reason the extensions tab appears to be missing from the default Systems Settings menu.

To install the Gnome Tweak tool, run the following command.

sudo apt-get install gnome-tweak-tool -y

Once installed, simply open the Tweak tool, select the Extensions tab and enable both the appindicators and dock extensions.

Now when connecting to the GNOME desktop, the Dock should be visible on the left hand side of the screen.

That’s it!

In this post we took an Ubuntu server running in Azure, installed the GNOME desktop and xRDP package, then followed up by making the necessary tweaks required for a more streamlined user experience. Connecting to an Ubuntu server by remote desktop connection may not be enabled out of the box but hopefully this article goes to show that it is still an option when administering Linux based machines in the cloud.


Azure: Disabling the Windows Firewall on an virtual machine from the portal

The RDP client is one of the most heavily utilised tools in a system administrator’s toolkit. There are alternatives, for example, console access, PowerShell, iLO or in the case of a physical machine the locally connected keyboard and monitor. This is fine for on-premise machines but for machines running in the cloud, most of the alternative methods are not an option and RDP becomes a critical method of connectivity.

Over the past months I have seen an increase in the number of customers that have adjusted the guest Windows OS firewall, inadvertently locking themselves out and making it impossible to manage their Azure virtual machines.

The following article outlines one of the methods I have successfully used when restoring access. This method makes use of the Azure virtual machine Custom Script Extension and a snippet of PowerShell.

1. The first step is to open your preferred PowerShell editor and paste in the following code.

Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy
\DomainProfile' -name "EnableFirewall" -Value 0

Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\
PublicProfile' -name "EnableFirewall" -Value 0

Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\
Standardprofile' -name "EnableFirewall" -Value 0

These commands update local registry values which in turn disables the three firewall profiles on the next machine reboot.

A copy of the file can be downloaded from my GitHub disablefw.ps1.

2. Save the file as <filename>.ps1

3. Now login to the Azure portal and browse to the virtual machine that is having connectivity problems.

4. From the blade of the virtual machine, select Extensions

5. Click the +Add button and select Custom Script Extension from the popup menu.

6. Click on the folder icon to browse to where the <filename>.ps1 file has been stored and after selecting the file, click Open to upload it.

7. The virtual machine extension can now be installed by clicking OK.

NOTE: Additional Arguments are optional and for this task should be left blank.

8. Once the extension is installed, the Azure portal will report that provisioning has been successful.

9. It’s now time to restart the virtual machine before retrying an RDP connection.

This has proven to be very useful to me on a number of occasions, hopefully it will be of assistance to others.

As always, if any mistakes are spotted, feel free to leave me a comment.

Azure IaaS: Resize VM disks in Azure

I have recently encountered a couple of situations where it has been necessary to resize disks attached to Azure virtual machines. Generally it has been on machines that have previously been migrated to Azure from their original on-premises infrastructure where storage was more of a premium.

When deploying machines directly in Azure its generally felt that deploying the largest disk possible is the best option. This is because regardless of the disk size, charge is only made for the actual amount of data written to the disk and not the size of the disk itself. The exception to the rule is when using premium storage which is the reverse and charged on the size of the disk and not the amount of data written in it.

In this example the operating system disk is nearly full and needs to be increased in size.

The easiest way to achieve this is to use our old friend PowerShell and the Update-AzureDisk cmdlet.

The first thing that must be done is to work out the disk name of the disk that needs to be resized. This can be done in various ways but generally its easiest to use either the Azure Portal or PowerShell.

Open the Azure portal then select Virtual Machines > Machine Name > All Settings > Disks and locate the disk name.

As mentioned its also possible to use PowerShell to pull back a list of all disks deployed in the current subscription from which their names and other attributes can be gathered. The first step is to connect to Azure and check that we are connected to the correct subscription.


Get-AzureSubscription -Current

To select an alternative subscription use the following PowerShell command.

Select AzureSubscription -SubscriptionID "Subscription ID"

Now connected to the subscription we require, its possible to search for a list of disks and the virtual machines that they are associated with.

Get-AzureDisk | fl Label, AttachedTo, DiskName

Having collected all the details required, it’s possible to use the next PowerShell command to resize the disk.

Update-AzureDisk -DiskName <diskname> –ResizedSizeInGB <size in GB> –label <labelname>

For Example:

Update-AzureDisk -DiskName TechKB-SVR01-TechKB-SVR01-0-201601281807180110 –ResizedSizeInGB 500 –label sysDrive

NOTE: The size of the updated disk must be between 20-1023GB and the Azure virtual machine must be powered off and in the deallocated state for the command to complete successfully.

After the command runs successfully its possible to view the resized disk in the Azure portal.

Once the disk has been successfully resized, the guest OS needs to be configured to use the additional space now available on the disk.

From within the guest open Disk Manager > Right Click System Volume > Expand Volume and follow the wizard through to add the extra space to the system volume.

Now when browsing in File Explorer the system drives displays the new volume size.